By Richard Swaback
The green-red fruit-like looking structure on this willow (Salix spp.),located on the edge of Lake Sunyata, is a gall (abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue) produced in concert with the sawfly (Pontania s-pomum).
Above the sawfly gall is a cabbage-like looking structure…yes that is also a gall…produced by the Willow Cabbage Gall Midge (Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides).
“I mean really…”
“Learning is any change in a system that produces a more or less permanent change in its capacity for adapting to its environment.” - Herbert A. Simon